明尼苏达州大学传染病研究和政策中心关于WHA的报道

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2020-05-19 15:15:28
12020-05-19 15:15
World Health Assembly opens amid pandemic tensions, calls for probeFiled Under: COVID-19Lisa Schnirring | News Editor | CIDRAP News | May 18, 2020
Calls for investigations into the World Health Organization (WHO) role in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic and a probe into the source of the virus in China dominated the opening of the World Health Assembly (WHA) today, held virtually and shortened to 2 days.

Meanwhile, the global total passed 4.75 million cases today, with deaths reaching 317,515, according to the Johns Hopkins online dashboard.
对世界卫生组织在应对2019冠状病毒病大流行中的作用和对中国病毒来源的调查是今天世界卫生大会(WHA)的主要议题。
与此同时,根据约翰霍普金斯大学在线仪表板的数据,全球病例总数今天已超过475万例,死亡人数达到317515人。

Pandemic probe support builds at WHA
More than 100 nations, including all European Union countries, are backing a WHA resolution that calls for an independent investigation into the COVID-19 pandemic, several news outlets reported. The group is expected to vote on the measure tomorrow.

After major outbreaks such as West Africa's 2014 Ebola epidemic, the WHO routinely conducts both internal and external reviews into its actions. However, a handful of countries, including the United States, have called for an earlier investigation, charging that the WHO didn't warn the world soon enough that that it has sided with China. The United States—with the world's highest number of cases and deaths— faces its own criticism for its slow and uneven response.

In his opening remarks to the WHA today, the WHO's Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, PhD, defended the WHO's response, saying that it sounded the alarm early and often and notified countries and issued guidance for healthcare workers within the first 10 days. He added that the WHO issued the highest alert level on Jan 30, when there were fewer than 100 cases and no deaths outside of China.

He detailed the WHO's efforts to ship tests and supplies to more than 120 countries, train 2.6 million healthcare workers, and organize massive efforts to speed research on treatments and vaccines. "Every country and every organization must examine its response and learn from its experience," Tedros said.

Tedros said the WHO welcomes the review proposal and will start an independent evaluation "at the earliest appropriate moment." Lessons learned from the pandemic should ideally leave the world better prepared, but reviews after the SARS, 2009 H1N1, and Ebola epidemics resulted in recommendations for countries to address gaps in global health security, some of which went unheeded.

He said the world needs to strengthen the systems it already has, including the WHO, and has all the tools, science, and resources to make the world safer from pandemics, but the commitment to using them is lacking. "Today I am calling on all nations to resolve that they will do everything it takes to ensure that the 2020 coronavirus pandemic is never repeated," he said.

The WHA, made of health ministers from 194 countries, is the decision-making body of the WHO.

世界卫生大会支持就流行病调查
据多家新闻媒体报道,包括所有欧盟国家在内的100多个国家支持世界卫生大会决议,呼吁对2019冠状病毒大流行展开独立调查。预计该组织将于明天就该法案进行投票。
在2014年西非埃博拉疫情等重大疫情爆发后,世卫组织定期对其行动进行内部和外部审查。然而,包括美国在内的少数几个国家已经呼吁对此事进行更早的调查,指责世卫组织没有及时向世界发出警告,表明自己站在了中国一边。美国是世界上病例和死亡人数最多的国家,但也因反应迟缓和不均衡而受到批评。
今天,世卫组织总干事谭德塞博士在世界卫生大会开幕式上发言,为世卫组织的应对措施进行辩护,他说,世卫组织提前并经常发出警报,并在最初10天内通知各国并为卫生保健工作者发布指导意见。他补充说,世卫组织在1月30日发布了最高警戒级别,当时中国境外病例少于100例,没有死亡病例。
他详细介绍了世卫组织为向120多个国家运送检测和供应品、培训260万卫生保健工作者以及组织大规模努力加快治疗和疫苗研究所做的努力。Tedros说:“每个国家和每个组织都必须审查其应对措施,并从其经验中吸取教训。”
谭德塞说,世卫组织欢迎这一审查建议,并将“在最早的适当时机”开始独立评估。理想情况下,从大流行中吸取的教训应该让世界做好更好的准备,但在SARS、2009年H1N1流感和埃博拉病毒流行之后的审查,导致各国提出了解决全球卫生安全差距的建议,其中一些建议没有得到重视。
他说,世界需要加强现有的系统,包括世卫组织,并拥有所有的工具、科学和资源,使世界更安全地抵御流行病,但缺乏使用这些工具、科学和资源的承诺。他说:“今天,我呼吁所有国家下定决心,尽一切努力确保2020年的冠状病毒大流行不再重演。”
世界卫生大会是世界卫生组织的决策机构,由194个国家的卫生部长组成。
China airs support for probe
China's President Xi Jinping today in an address to the WHA said it supports a comprehensive review of the pandemic, once the virus is under control, Reuters reported.

China had opposed earlier calls for similar investigations from the United States and Australia, but Xi said the country would be open to an impartial review that shares lessons and highlights weaknesses, led by the WHO with objectivity and fairness.

He defended China's actions as transparent and timely, and he pledged $2 billion over the next 2 years to help with the COVID-19 response. Also, Xi vowed that China's vaccine, which entered human trials on Mar 16, would be available to the rest of the world to help slow the spread of the virus.
中国表示支持调查
据路透社报道,中国国家主席习近平今天在世界卫生大会上发表讲话,表示一旦疫情得到控制,将对疫情进行全面评估。
中国反对早些时候呼吁类似的调查从美国和澳大利亚,但Xi表示,国家将开放一个公正的评论分享经验和突出弱点,由世卫组织与他们看待问题的客观性和公平性。
他认为中国的行动是透明和及时的,并承诺在未来两年内提供20亿美元帮助应对2019冠状病毒病。同时,习近平表示,中国的疫苗,它进入人体试验3月16日,将世界其他国家的帮助减缓病毒的蔓延。

Tensions strong in US address
Meanwhile, the US representative to the WHA—Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Alex Azar—strongly criticized the WHO today in his remarks before the group. "We must be frank about one of the primary reasons this outbreak spun out of control: There was a failure by this organization to obtain the information that the world needed, and that failure cost many lives," he said.

He said the United States has been transparent about drug and vaccine treatment trial results, which will benefit the whole world: "WHO's operations must be transparent too, and we support an independent review of every aspect of WHO’s response to the pandemic."

In a thinly veiled criticism of China, Azar said one country, in concealing its outbreak, made a "mockery" of transparency obligations, which resulted in tremendous costs to the rest of the world.
美国发言加剧紧张局势
与此同时,美国卫生与公众服务部(HHS)秘书亚历克斯·阿扎尔今天在会上发言时强烈批评了世卫组织。他说:“我们必须坦率地指出,这次疫情失控的主要原因之一是本组织未能获得世界所需要的信息,而这一失败使许多人失去了生命。”
他说,美国一直对药物和疫苗治疗试验结果保持透明,这将使全世界受益:“世卫组织的运作也必须透明,我们支持对世卫组织应对大流行的各个方面进行独立审查。”
阿扎尔几乎不加掩饰地批评中国说,有一个国家隐瞒疫情,是对透明度义务的“嘲弄”,给世界其他国家造成了巨大损失。
以下两部分内容略,只看标题即可。
Health systems under pressure in Russia, Brazil
处于压力下的俄罗斯和巴西的卫生系统

Past-peak countries face new challenges
疫情高峰过后的国家面临新的挑战,主要讲德国、法国、英国,中国、韩国现在面临的疫情。
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